This paper examines the role played by foreign interests and intervention in the nature and manifestation of these sorts of insurgency in Nigeria. Chief among the factors that can motivate and sustain violence in a political system are factors that originate or come from outside the borders of the country involved. As forms of political violence, insurgency and terrorism in the Nigerian context pits the state against groups with perceived discontent in a struggle that has resulted in significant loss of life and incalculable destruction of property in the last decade. Using the rentier state thesis, the paper also looks at the role played by external rent from oil in the insurgency in the Niger Delta. In the case of Boko Haram, the paper employs the content analysis tool to examine the motivation, funding and allegiances of the group to discover the extent to which foreign interests are implicated in the violence. The recommendation is for a deliberate government policy aimed at curtailing the influence of factors outside the borders of the country on the domestic political system.
Keywords: Foreign Interests, Insurgency, Political Violence, Terrorism, Rentier State Thesis, Niger Delta, Boko Haram
The paper affirms that there is a nexus between democracy, good governance and development. While this is almost assured, a contrary contention is that development can be achieved through other political format and not necessarily through western liberal democratic format. The paper thereby traces the democratisation process in Nigeria and argued that the convoluted development of democracy and the democratic truancy of the politicians since independence have not made Nigeria to enjoy the full benefits of democracy. The paper further contends that following the examples of China and the Asian Tigers, democracy may not in the final analysis offer the only singular way to development. A crucial factor that the paper implies is that there is a dialectical relationship between democracy and unhindered development, which brings about peace and peace within the system, also encourages development. Our primary pre-occupation in this paper is to argue that democracy, if opted for and properly practised, can facilitate development. Based on this premise, we intend to critically examine, using Nigeria as our point of departure, the actual and potential ways in which democracy enhances and facilitates development. Even though we shall be arguing that the value of democracy lies in its ability and superior capacity to facilitate development, we are also mindful of the experiences of China and the Asian Tigers to develop using alternative models and different brand of democracy. Underlying this argument is that Liberal democracy facilitates development but that development is not exclusive to liberal democracy. As a matter of fact, our intellectual and academic predisposition is that for a Third World nation that is desirous of rapid development, liberal democracy may provide an avenue, albeit, a rather slow and expensive avenue.
KEYWORDS: Liberal Democracy, Good Governance, National Development, Asian Tigers
This paper examines the various challenges and prospects that comes with the collection of survey data especially during conflict with a view to understanding and navigation the obstacles involved in the process. It also interrogates the ethical considerations involved in the collection of survey data during conflict. If the conditions and circumstances of conflict are to be understood, objective information must be collected. The collection of data is normally not an easy task, even in perfect conditions. The addition of conflict situations further makes this task arduous. There are various conditions unique to conflict situation that further complicates the collection of data. The paper examines also makes recommendations towards the collection of valid data in conflict situations.
KEYWORDS: Survey, Data, Conflict, Conflict Research, Methodology
The research is a work on case study research method in the social sciences. Case study research could be both deductive and inductive depending on the approach and objective. If it aims at affirming an existing theory, it is deductive, but if it aims at formulating a new theory, then it is inductive. The research highlights the purpose of case study research as descriptive, explanatory, and explorative. The research attempts to explain the problem of establishing general conclusions or theory from only a number of cases studied of an entire population. The research aim was therefore to evaluate the validity of generalized conclusions in the case study research in social sciences in view of the fact that social behavior is complex and dynamic and thus, its conclusions cannot always be logically applied as a universal law. The research concludes that an application of both data from previous literature and a current empirical data is necessary for a good generalization. The research also explained the analytic and synthetic models as conditions for generalizations and adopted the particular study research as an alternative to case study research.
This study explores the abundance of literature including statistical evidence on poverty and social inequality in Africa and juxtaposes that with the resultant violence that characterizes practice of electoral democracy on the continent using content analysis and descriptive method. The history of democracy in Africa is also the history of tension and violence associated with elections or political transition processes. Studies on democracy have shown reliable correlation between micro economic stability and democracy sustenance, and this work derives its orientation from such shared background about causal relationship between economic life and political behavior. The study draws arguable connections between inequality and electoral violence in democratizing African states, using the case of Nigeria. It concludes on the note that the survival of democracy largely depends on instituting radical transformation in economic priorities of African societies, especially, through policies that bridge the huge gap across income levels and reduce escalating poverty and vulnerability of the populace.
Keywords – Poverty, Social Inequality, Electoral Violence, Democracy, Economic Stability, Political Behaviour